The Restoration style

 

Following the Empire, the Restoration (1815-1830) prolongs the Neoclassical taste while clearing the decorative arts of imperial emblems and rigidity. This style opposes delicacy and suppleness to the ostentation and rigidity of the Directoire. Charles X especially promotes continuity with the forms of the Ancien Regime.


Turned in this way towards the past, the Restoration style brings back to the taste of the day motifs of the Louis XVI style, but also Gothic and Renaissance forms. Within this wide variety of shapes, the S-shaped doucine, the diamond, the palmettes, are often encountered. The fine inlaid patterns on light woods, reminiscent of the Regency, are also in vogue.

The Duchesse de Berry, a great patron of the Restoration, is also an amateur of the Troubadour taste that rises under Charles X. The Neo-Gothic style, destined to endure until the end of the century, knows its first pieces of anthology such as the Gothic Cabinet of the Countess of Osmond.

The Bleu Fleuri marble

Praised for the freshness of its color, the Bleu Fleuri marble offers a variety of shades from gray to sky blue. It is a sought-after marble whose veins also take various forms according to the marble cut. Sometimes of deep black, these veins highlight the subtle blue color of the stone.

Of a more rare blue than the Turquin, it was particularly appreciated in the 19th  century for the creation of fireplaces. It is indeed Pompadour fireplaces, Louis XIV or Louis XVI styles fireplaces, made in the 19th century, that most often allow to admire this marble. It is brought up to date by Napoleon I, who chooses a Bleu Fleuri fireplace to decorate his apartments at the Chateau of Compiègne.

The Bleu Fleuri marble comes mainly from the quarries of Seravezza in Tuscany, quarry that provides the most beautiful marble, including the famous white Carrara marble.

The exceptional monumental fireplace originating from the Chateau of Montgeon attributed to Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard

Stone

Dimensions : H : 13ft 9” 1/4 ; W : 10ft 2”; D : 38” 1/2.

Originating from the Chateau of Montgeon, Le Havre (France).

Circa 1870.





Bearing an impressive overmantel where a Muse teaches a musician angel to play the viol, this monumental fireplace was installed on the ground floor of the Chateau of Montgeon in Le Havre (France). It was built on the same model as the famous fireplace in the Salon Biencourt at the Chateau of Azay-le-Rideau, known for the beautiful salamander that adorns its overmantel. Both were made in the 19th century and are thus realizations of the Neo-Renaissance style, which allows us to attribute the fireplace that we present to the same artist who designed the fireplace of Azay-le-Rideau.



Central medallion of the fireplace from Montgeon


A Neo-Renaissance fireplace as in Azay-le-Rideau


The "Salon of the Biencourt Marquises" at the Chateau of Azay-le-Rideau, reconstruction of the 19th-century room by the Centre des monuments nationaux and the Mobilier national.


Built in the 16th century, the famous castle apparently floating on water, built on an island in the middle of the Indre River, waited until the 19th century to receive the salamander fireplace. It was indeed installed by the Marquises de Biencourt, who undertake works of aesthetic harmonization, in order to preserve the charm of the Renaissance style. This is why the salamander is shown there, whereas the Chateau of Azay-le-Rideau was never the home of Francis I, who offered the castle to his faithful.


The monumental fireplace of the Marquises de Biencourt’s Room has a large carved stone overmantel, supported by columns with Corinthian capitals. The entablature is carved with a frieze, above which stands a large medallion adorned with the Salamander of Francis I, framed by two Corinthian pilasters. The general structure of this famous national heritage work is the same as the one adopted for the fireplace of the Chateau of Montgeon, and their likeness is striking.

To the left : fireplace in the Salon of the Biencourt Marquises with its painted decor, Azay-le-Rideau, antique postcard. To the right : fireplace in the Chateau of Montgeon, during the castle’s demolition.

Indeed, the design of these two fireplaces is identical in its architecture, from the shape of the cornices to the square moldings framing the medallion. The differences are in the ornamental choices: the capitals of the columns are not the same, nor the motif of the friezes. The paneled pilasters are carved with foliage at Azay-le-Rideau, while they are smooth at Montgeon. Last but not least, the medallion does not represent the same subject. However, these differences come from the adaptation of a Neo-Renaissance fireplace model to two different commissions: the proportions were thus defined according to each of the two rooms, and the ornaments according to the wishes of the commissioner.


It seems hence obvious that the fireplace of Montgeon was realized following the model of Azay-le-Rideau. However, the latter was made by a 19th century decorator, active in several castles and churches in France, and it seems quite probable that the fireplace we are presenting was commissioned to the same artist. We would thus have the honor of presenting a rare work by the Neo-Renaissance style specialist, Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard.

 

 

Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard (1825-1902), a 16th century enthusiast

 

 



Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard, born in Lyon in 1825, trained in painting with the  Troubadour painter Delaroche, and  multiplied his activities: he is an illustrator of the French traditional costumes, author of a book on history of styles, painter, and finally decorator. Passionate about the sixteenth century, he left a number of sketches for stained glass and tapestry, as well as engravings, paintings and interior decorations.

Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard, The Benedicite, 1859.


In his very first work for the Salon in 1859, he painted in The Benedicite a monumental fireplace that already resembles those he will have the opportunity to realize later.



Indeed, in 1864, George de Montbrison, who shared his passion for the art of the Renaissance, entrusted him with the entire decoration of his home, the Chateau of Saint-Roch.

"Fireplace, ceiling, parquet flooring, woodwork, furniture, everything had to be executed on his drawings and under his unique direction," says Georges Duplessis in La Revue des Arts Décoratifs in 1880. The fireplace of Saint-Roch looks like that he imagined in his painting: with fauns supporting the entablature, and a large medallion framed in a panel that can accommodate a painted decoration.


Finished in 1869, this extraordinary work allowed him to design other interiors, including the Biencourt Salon in Azay-le-Rideau, the fireplace of the Chateau of Chaumont, and the Library of the Duke of Chartres (commissioned in 1875), the Reception room of the town hall of Chateaudun (1881-1891), and the works commissioned by the Duke of Aumale for the Chateau of Chantilly (1877-1893).

Formed as a painter, he ensures the painted decoration of the fireplaces he has being built, which is why in Azay-le-Rideau as at Saint-Roch, he leaves a smooth surface around the medallion, destined to receive his painting.

Fireplace in the Chateau Saint-Roch, period photograph by Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard, circa 1864.

Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard became since 1870 a prominent decorator for the owners of aristocratic residences throughout France. This is why our fireplace, whose style perfectly matches the fireplaces of Saint-Roch and Azay-le-Rideau, can be attributed to Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard. The Chateau of Montgeon is indeed the property of an ancient aristocratic family, like his other commissioners.

 

 

A patrimonial work from the Chateau of Montgeon

 


Raised on the former village of Rouelles, today on the territory of Le Havre, the Chateau of Montgeon is in all likelihood built about 1700 by the family of Georges Le Roux, councilor to the parliament of Rouen and Lord of the Bocage. The Le Roux family had indeed acquired neighboring lands, the fiefdom of the Bouteillerie, in 1531, on which still stands the Manor of the Bouteillerie, one kilometer from the Chateau of Montgeon.


The daughter of Georges Le Roux, Marie-Anne Le Roux of Montgeon (1710-1792), was born in the castle in 1710, and married in 1729 Marie-Hyacinthe de Cavelier, himself a descendant of the very ancient Cavelier family.

The couple lives in the property and founds a family that will reside there until the 20th century. Their grandson, Amedee (1791-1858), bought the forest of Montgeon and enlarged the castle by appending the arms of the Cavelier de Montgeon on the pediment. The fireplace of the Chateau of Montgeon could have been ordered by Firmin de Cavelier de Montgeon (1815-1882), or by his son Albert (1848-1929), the two men having been able to hear of Edmond Lechevallier-Chevignard’s success and wishe to adorn the family castle with one of his beautiful creations.

The Chateau’s pediment with the Cavelier de Montgeon’s coat of arms, azur with three crescents or
The fireplace in situ in the Chateau of Montgeon after the fire that tore down nearly 80% of the original castle.

The castle subsequently became the property of the city of Le Havre in 2001 but was unfortunately the victim of a violent fire that led to its complete destruction in 2009. When this impressive fireplace was to be dismantled, the team of the Marc Maison Gallery enters the ruins of the castle and can only observe the irreversible damage caused by the fire. A few elements were spared by the flames including this fireplace, so that it was possible to save this important patrimonial work.


The surprise was huge when, the team having finally put down the last pieces of the fireplace, charcoal drawings appeared on the wall! The capitals with acanthus leaves, the columns and molded bases of the fireplace were drawn there, which is quite rare and testifies to a real work of sculpture made to measure, a work of a talented sculptor.

The sketches of the fireplace’s capitals and columns on the castle’s walls.

Pierre-Joseph Guérou

Pierre-Joseph Guerou, painter of flowers from the Sèvres Manufactory, is known to have executed the decoration of Empress Eugénie’s jewel case held in the palace of Compiègne. This piece of furniture bears the rare porcelain inlays by Julien-Nicolas Rivart, which painting was only signed by Guerou.

The Marc Maison Gallery has endeavored to find furniture items signed by Guérou, and today has in its collection some other rare examples of this painting. Guérou’s color is indeed remarkable for its luminosity and contrasts, and the precision of his stroke testifies to a real careful observation of nature.

Rivart's porcelain flowers owe their beauty to the hand of this romantic-generation painter, who knew how to give them an oxymoronic freshness.